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References & Testimonials
August 18, 2014
For Immediate Release
Contact: John Wolcott, 518-465-8930
Researcher Pinpoints Long Lost 1614 Albany Fort
Map Sleuth John Wolcott Reveals Exact Location of Fort Nassau
ALBANY, N.Y. (08/18/14) — A local historian released his findings today, pinpointing the exact location of a 1614 colonial fort in Albany.
“Fort Nassau” is North America’s oldest Dutch trading house, built in 1614 near the present-day Port of Albany. But the precise location of the ruined structure was forgotten over time as the natural and built environment changed during four centuries.
“Fort Nassau is very significant to American, Dutch and Indian history,” said John Wolcott, historic researcher and cartographic sleuth. “But its exact location had been lost over the years. Not only has the geography changed, but the latitude readings provided by early maps have to be adjusted for problems caused by being inland using instruments of the time.”
After pouring over maps and charts spanning the 17th to 21st centuries, Wolcott is confident he has rediscovered the spot where Fort Nassau once stood and that there may be “artifact laden strata and articulated features” left to uncover.
According to Wolcott, the fort was located in what is today the northern end of a side spur of the Kenwood Rail Yard (Port of Albany) close to the present day intersection of Church St. and Broadway. The site is across the road from a small riverfront park and a vacant grassy lot.
OIL PLANT CONTROVERSY
The property is owned by Global Companies, a unit of Global Partners, based in Waltham, Mass. This January, the company announced plans to build a 2,600-square-foot facility at the port’s rail yard to heat and transfer crude oil arriving by train.
At the same time, Wolcott announced in a press release that he was working to pinpoint the exact location of the Fort Nassau site in the vicinity of the proposed oil boilers. That news was reported locally, nationally via the Associated Press, and internationally in major Dutch publications including the March 15, 2014 edition of Elsevier Magazine.
Since then, Global Companies has opted for another location for those facilities, Wolcott noted. This month, Wolcott completed his research.
CALL TO EXCAVATE
“If we can test the site, and if it’s proven that some serious history can be uncovered, then the property should be acquired by the public or an academic institution so that a careful archaeological excavation can be conducted without a construction deadline,” Wolcott said. “It could be an excellent site for further study as well as a tourist attraction of international multicultural significance.”
Based on a contemporary record when the fort structure had been constructed, Wolcott says the dimensions of Fort Nassau are 58 feet across the quadrangle, surrounded by an 18-foot moat. That poses higher probability of finding something, he said.
HISTORY OF FORT NASSAU
Fort Nassau was constructed in late winter or early spring 1614 during a trading expedition for the Amsterdam Van Tweenhysen Company, commanded by Captain Adriaen Block.
The fort was located on “Castle Island,” which has since gone by several other names (on the Hudson River, which was then called the “North River”), and was later buried under silt and earth. Fort Nassau became the focal point for the North American fur trade in the Northeast, where the Dutch and indigenous peoples traded goods for fur. It also became the staging point for expeditions to seek out mineral deposits and other natural resources for exploitation.
After several washouts by the Hudson River spring floods, and a final severe flood in 1617, the Dutch moved on to the mainland and built Fort Orange, which in 1970 was partially excavated before an exit from I-787 was placed on top of it.
“Fort Nassau didn’t turn out to be a permanent settlement, but it was the beginning of it all here in the Northeast,” Wolcott said. “Let’s finally save one of these amazing colonial sites.”
In 1969, Wolcott pinpointed the exact location of Fort Orange using an obscure manuscript map. A year later he was hired as a field worker for the State Historic Trust to help prove his findings were true. They were.
A map attributed to Johannes Vingboons, titled “Noort Rivier in Niew Neerlandt,” shows a reddish-orange smudge on the north tip of Castle Island. The Library of Congress dates the map as “1639?” but Wolcott believes the map was probably created in 1626 or 1627. In a more recent book, Shirley Dunn, former curator of Fort Crailo in Rensselaer, noted that the smudge represented the ruins of Fort Nassau.
In the early 17th century, Dutch historical and geographical writer Joannes de Laet provided a description of Fort Nassau’s location with latitude that Wolcott analyzed for problems caused by instruments of that time.
Wolcott next found an 1863 U.S. Coast Survey of the Hudson River that includes a square piece of land in Island Creek that conforms to the dimensions of the fort and to the reports of historic washouts.
Finally, he used a 1910 map with a street pattern to link the 1863 map to existing landmarks today and transferred the location of the fort to a modern satellite image of the site.
“I call that 1910 map my ‘Rosetta map,’” Wolcott said, in reference to the Rosetta Stone that helped scholars crack the mystery of Egyptian hieroglyphics. “I used the Albany and Greenbush ferry slips at the end of the streets as anchors for positioning.”
SEPT. 20 SYMPOSIUM: 1614
This Sept. 20, The New Netherland Institute will host its 37th New Netherland Seminar in the Huxley Theater of the Cultural Education Center in Albany, NY. The program will commemorate the 400th anniversary of the construction of Fort Nassau on Castle Island in the port of Albany. “1614” will feature five speakers who will offer arguments for its probable location on the island.
Wolcott is not among the invited speakers.
SUPPORT FROM HISTORIAN PEERS
Local historian and archaeologist Don Rittner supports Wolcott’s work.
“John Wolcott is very good at reading old maps, old measurements, old triangulations,” said Rittner. “If John tells you something’s in the ground, I’ll put money on it.”
Rittner believes there may have been three forts built on the same island before the Dutch abandoned the project to erect Fort Orange on the mainland in 1624. See: Preserve Fort Nassau, and Fort Nassau 2, and Fort Nassau 3, and………, Times Union blog, Aug. 15, 2014.
ESSAY FOR PUBLICATION
John Wolcott has written a 560 word essay regarding his research which may be quoted by reporters or reprinted in full by newspapers, magazines and blogs with attribution.
PINPOINTING FORT NASSAU 1614 (ALBANY)
By John Wolcott
Aug. 17, 2014
HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGES
For high resolution images of Wolcott’s cartographic findings and positioning of Fort Nassau, visit:
Note 1: Possible photo ops include Wolcott in his study with the original map documents, or traveling to the site of the Fort Nassau ruins.
Note 2: L.F. Tantillo created a speculative history painting of Fort Nassau, however his depiction probably does not reflect how the fort actually appeared. Only a full excavation could show for sure.
John Wolcott, 518-465-8930 Lbecker7@gmail.com
Don Rittner, 518-378-9256 firstname.lastname@example.org
The following is an essay which may be reprinted in newspapers, magazines and blogs with attribution. For an accompanying press release, see: Researcher Pinpoints Long Lost 1614 Albany Fort, (Aug. 18, 2014).
Contact: John Wolcott, 518-465-8930
Pinpointing Fort Nassau 1614 (Albany)
Location of long lost fort, at long last
By John Wolcott
Fort Nassau: the first Dutch trading house built in North America, was constructed on Castle (Westerlo) Island on the Upper Hudson where Albany, N.Y. is. It was but a small redoubt yet deemed the acorn from which sprouted the American Middle States. This trading post lasted only three years and was badly damaged by a spring freshet and abandoned. Eventually even its ruins were silted over and forgotten.
In 1796, Albany contemplated a plan to acquire patents for water lots and extend South End streets opposite the north end of Castle Island, out into the Hudson River. It was similar, on a smaller scale, to the way Manhattan expanded out into the Hudson and East Rivers. In the course of finally implementing this in the 1840s, dredging was found necessary to adjust the upper end of Castle Island and Island Creek to accommodate the plan.
At some point, as an incidental result of this dredging, the north side of Fort Nassau’s moat was broken into. This in turn, apparently caused a large washout area to the west and south of the fort’s remains. This temporary re-exposure of Fort Nassau was recorded on a survey of the Upper Hudson conducted in 1861 by the U.S. Coast Survey and printed by them in 1863. I have the good fortune of owning one of these scarce charts. By the way of some slightly painstaking intermediate measures, I transferred the fort’s quadrangle from the 1863 printed chart onto a current satellite image. The little orange square on this satellite image is about 60 foot square, which squares with the only contemporary source for the fort’s quadrangle plan. It’s in a text block on Adriaen Block’s “NIEUNEDER LANDT” chart of 1614. This reads: “Fort van Nassauen is binnen de wallen 58 voeten wydt in’t vierkant.” This will I English as: “Nassau’s Fort has within its walls a 58 foot quadrangle.” This is the little “lump” with a sort of wedge or tail below it on the detail enlargement of the 1863 chart. Close to 60 feet English (American) measure would be 58 feet Rynland Measure.
OF DOUBTS AND REDOUBTS
Don Rittner, archaeologist and president of the Onrust Project, suspects two additional Fort Nassau about half a mile south of that which I have pinpointed – these would be opposite the Normans Kill which flows into Island Creek from the west. One spot of Don’s is on the west bank of Castle Island, there. The first spot seems to be indicated on Block’s Nieuneder Landt chart as referenced to above. The second is on a chart of 1616 two years later. So there could be not one but three sites, although only one is now pin pointed and should be tested A.S.A.P.
Why are we, here, met with such seeming anomalies? I can’t really say considering the paucity of contemporary written sources in this case. Strata, features and artifacts can be “read” in many a good site. Once my pinpointed site is archaeologically tested and explored and the other two suspected places searched, perhaps a nagging and persistent local legend might be affirmed or denied. This legend has it that a French Chateaux was built on Castle Island in 1540 and that Fort Nassau was constructed atop the ruins of the Chateaux.
John R. Wolcott
Contact: John Wolcott, 518-465-8930
For a full press release regarding these findings, see: Researcher Pinpoints Long Lost 1614 Albany Fort, (Aug. 18, 2014).
Maps of Fort Nassau
Courtesy of John Wolcott
Map: Fort Nassau Site Today, by John Wolcott
To Download Image (3.6 MB), right-click this link: FortNassau-JohnWolcott.jpg
Graphic: Fort Nassau Site Today, based on John Wolcott’s Findings
To Download Image (2.5 MB), right-click this link: FtNassauGoogleEarth.jpg
Caption: An illustration showing location of Fort Nassau site, based on John Wolcott’s findings.
Caption: This 1614 chart, attributed to attributed to Adriaen Block, positions Fort Nassau at 43 degrees north latitude. The writings of Joannes de Laet also support this: “On the east lies a long broken island, through which several creeks find a passage, forming several islands, extending nearly to the island on which the fort was erected, in latitude 43˚.” John Wolcott analyzed this early latitude for problems caused by instruments of that time to pinpoint the location on later maps and charts.
Map Detail: “Noort Rivier in Niew Neerlandt”
To Download Image (156 KB), right-click this link: FortNassauMap01.jpg [To download the entire map at full resolution, visit: http://www.loc.gov/resource/g3802h.ct001070]
Caption: Map by Johannes Vingboons, “Noort Rivier in Niew Neerlandt,” showing location of abandoned Fort Nassau and Fort Orange on the mainland. The Library of Congress dates the map at 1639. John Wolcott believes the map was actually created earlier, probably in 1626. Image courtesy of Don Rittner.
Map: Fort Nassau Site 1863 Detail, courtesy John Wolcott
To Download Image (2.5 MB), right-click this link: USCoastSurvey-Crop-Detail-CourtesyJohnWolcott.jpg [To download full original map (339 MB), USCoastSurvey-Full-CourtesyJohnWolcott.tif
Caption: Detail showing site of Fort Nassau Courtesy of John Wolcott, from: “Preliminary Chart of Hudson River Sheet No. 3 From Poughkeepsie to Troy New York. From a Trigonometrical Survey under the direction of A.D. BACHE Superintendent of the SURVEY OF THE COAST OF THE UNITED STATES. 1863”
1910 Chart (John Wolcott’s “Rosetta Map”)
To Download Image (2.7 MB), right-click this link: 1910Map-Wolcott.jpg
Caption: John Wolcott used Joannes de Laet’s description of the island fort at “43 degrees” to locate it on an 1863 hand drawn copy of a 1614 map attributed to Adriaen Block. He then analyzed this early latitude for problems caused by instruments of that time to pinpoint the location on later maps and charts.
For a press release regarding Wolcott’s findings, see: Researcher Pinpoints Long Lost 1614 Albany Fort, (Aug. 18, 2014).